type 1 sub grade density

Subgrade and Subbase for Concrete Slabs - The Constructor

🕑 Reading time: 1 minute Subgrade and subbase are the foundation of a concrete slab and play critical role in its performance. According to the ACI Code, the subgrade is a compacted and improved natural soil or brought infill whereas subbase is a layer of gravel placed on the top of the subgrade.

AASHTO Soil Classification System - Wikipedia

The AASHTO Soil Classification System was developed by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, and is used as a guide for the classification of soils and soil-aggregate mixtures for highway construction purposes. The classification system was first developed by Hogentogler and Terzaghi in 1929, but has been revised several times since.

206 Lime Stabilized Subgrade

Lime Stabilized Subgrade is used to modify the subgrade to bridge soft areas. See Figure 204.H Subgrade Treatment Chart and the other pertinent sections. Use average N values as low as 10, average U of 1.0 tons/ ft 2 and to remove ruts < 6 inches (150mm). A brief outline of the specification requirements follows: Materials (206.02)


Density Control of maximum dry density Moisture content within ±2 percent of optimum. Curing Finished section until moisture content is at least 2 percent below optimum. Ride Quality Only applicable to final travel lanes receiving 1 or 2 course seal coat. IRI value of …

Subgrade - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

The overall subgrade comprised natural subgrade, the sand/rubble layer, and the imported subgrade layer. The clayey silt used for the imported subgrade had a liquid limit of 35% and a PI of 16. The soaked and unsoaked CBR of subgrade materials are given in Table 6.3.For the imported clay subgrade, which served as the primary subgrade, a dry density of 1.85 t/m 3 was obtained at OMC ...

Subbase (pavement) - Wikipedia

In highway engineering, subbase is the layer of aggregate material laid on the subgrade, on which the base course layer is located. It may be omitted when there will be only foot traffic on the pavement, but it is necessary for surfaces used by vehicles. Subbase is often the main load-bearing layer of the pavement.Its role is to spread the load evenly over the subgrade.


Spreading, mixing and Compaction 4. Max size of clods / hard lumps 75 mm for embankment and 50 mm in subgrade 5. If fill is to be deposited on slope ( steeper than 1:4) faces are to be benched 6. During construction surface to have cross fall for drainage 7.

Modulus of Subgrade reaction - Which one to use

The modulus of subgrade reaction is an often misunderstood and misused concept for the thickness design of slabs-on-ground. Terzaghi in 1955 (Ref. 1, P. 300) attributed this confusion to the initial work by Hayashi in 1921 (Ref. 2), who stated that the subgrade reaction should be determined by …

Subgrade Preparation for New Pavements – Pavement Interactive

Figure 1. Checking subgrade density. In order to provide maximum structural support (as measured by M R, CBR or R-value), a subgrade soil must be compacted to an adequate density (see Figure 1). If it is not, the subgrade will continue to compress, deform or erode after construction, causing pavement cracks and deformation.

Item 247 Flexible Base - ftp.dot.state.tx.us Type A. Crushed stone produced and graded from oversize quarried aggregate that originates from a single, naturally occurring source. Do not use gravel or multiple sources. Type B. Crushed or uncrushed gravel. Blending of 2 or more sources is allowed. Type C. Crushed gravel with a minimum of 60% of the particles ...

TxDOT Specifications

Apr 29, 2002· 260 - LIME TREATMENT FOR MATERIALS USED AS SUBGRADE (ROAD MIXED) SPECIFICATION REQUIREMENTS 1) Typical sections, lines and grades must be shown on the plans. 2) Specify the type or types of lime to be used on the plans. 3) The percentage by weight or pounds per square yard of lime to be added must be shown on the plans.


aggregate subgrade: 1. Aggregate properties such as angularity, fines content, and fines plasticity. 2. Aggregate layer compaction. 3. The number of load passes. It was also noted for subgrade IBVs of 3 or greater, aggregate properties, rather than subgrade characteristics and aggregate thickness, are likely to control performance.

SECTION 160 - fdotewp1.dot.state.fl.us

1608 Density Requirements. 1608.1 General: Within the entire limits of the width and depth of the areas to be stabilized, other than as provided in 1608.2, obtain a minimum density at any location of 98% of the maximum density as determined by AASHTO T 180.

What is density of bitumen? – Mvorganizing.org

Mar 20, 2021· What is the density of GSB material? 2.1 g/cc. What is GSB material? Granular Sub-base (GSB) consists of laying and compacting well graded material on prepared sub-grade in accordance with the specifications.: GSB layer is intermediate layer in between Sub-grade and Wet mix macadam. GSB layer is laid in roads and higway works due to its ...

Subgrade: Properites, Advantages & Disadvantages

Sub grade soils must have good compacting properties. A well-compacted subgrade surface increases the strength and durability of road pavements. Due to ease of compaction ensures high density and strength. Sub grade soils must have resistance to weathering therefore retain the desired support.

Laboratory studies on strength and bearing capacity of GSB ...

Where, h= thickness of GSB layer, T= total thickness of both soil sub-grade and GSB layers. 4.1. CBR TEST For the CBR test, Compaction was done in 5 layers with 56 blows for each layer as per the requirements. In case of combined layer composition (for type II, type III and type IV), GSB layer is compacted first for a corresponding


The strength of the road subgrade for flexible pavements is commonly assessed in terms of the California Bearing Ratio (CBR) and this is dependent on the type of soil, its density, and its moisture content. Direct assessment of the likely strength or CBR of the subgrade soil under the completed road pavement is often difficult to make. Its value,

INDOT Subgrade Standard Specification & ITM Updates

•Testing and mix design shall be in accordance with 215.03. • Contactor is responsible for all tests required to determine the optimum cement content for producing stabilized subgrade. • Subgrade shall have minimum unconfined compressive strength of 300 psi at 7 days. (AASHTO T 208) • The testing shall be performed by a Qualified Geotechnical Consultant.

Type 1 Subbase – Materials Man

In comparative terms when capping is necessary it has a moisture content discipline, why doesn't type 1? why is density not measured as in some of the special 6's fills. Why can sources of type 1 be mixed? Does type 1 protect capping or subgrade from rain? This material breaks rules as you build a pavement, it is a teenager getting away ...

Construction Aggregate Calculator - Vulcan Materials Company

*Density Estimator Instructions: If you do not know the actual density, select the type of geology and product from the lists below and hit the "Estimate Density" button. An estimated density factor should then appear in the above density field.

Sub-Base | Limestone or Granite | Type 1 & Type 3 | Soils ...

Type 1 is a granular, well-graded material sized from 63mm to dust, but with most of the material sized at 31.5mm to dust. Available both as a limestone or a granite, Type 1 SHW Clause 803 (formerly MOT Type 1) is widely used as a sub-base in the construction of roads, car parks and pathways.

Compressive Strength | EPS Industry Alliance

For foundation and wall applications in which the insulation bears a minimal load, ASTM C 578 Type I (nominal density of 0.9 pounds per cubic foot) material is adequate. EPS board produced to meet the requirement of Type I EPS has been tested and found to fall within 10 to 14 psi.

Home Page | Missouri Department of Transportation

304.4.4 % Density. Field density for Type 1 and Type 5 aggregate base shall be determined in accordance with AASHTO T 191 or AASHTO T 310, Direct Transmission, for wet density. For sand cone method, the volume of the test hole may be reduced as necessary to …

FM 5-430-00-1 Chptr 5 Subgrades and Base Courses

A specification block should be used to determine limits for density and moisture content. ... limit requirements for a subbase given in Table 5-1. SUBGRADE STABILIZATION ... type aircraft) or 1/8 ...

Subgrade Soil Properties - Highway Materials Questions and ...

This set of Pavement Design Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on "Highway Materials – Subgrade Soil Properties – 1". 1. Which of the following is not a desirable property of subgrade soil? a) Strength b) Stability c) Compaction d) Compressibility View Answer

Subgrade Preparation - Layfield

Generally this means that the subgrade should be compacted to a minimum 95% of maximum dry density according to the standard Proctor test (ASTM D698). The design of a prepared subgrade should carefully consider load bearing requirements, the amount of subgrade deformation expected, and whether or not local differential settlement may occur.

MDOT - Standard Specifications for Construction

The 2012 Standard Specification for Construction (Errata Edition) files are not part of any contract documents for a project and are being provided by MDOT as a courtesy service to contractors, vendors, employees and other government agencies.

PennDOT Specification Changes for Materials, Equipment ...

density for soil and Type 1 Granular material - Perform test with substitution for material retained on the . 3/8" sieve • Contractor to perform field testing (QC and acceptance) to monitor and assess compliance - Field testing for compliance for soil and Type 1 Granular material is nuclear gauge in the . direct transmission mode

804 Cement Stabilized Subgrade

See the Subgrade Treatment Chart in Figure 204.H and the other pertinent sections. Use for average N values as low as 5. Average U of 0.5 tons/ ft 2. To remove ruts > 6 inches (150mm). A brief outline of the specification requirements follows: Materials (804.02) Use Type 1 Cement. 701.04

Design Guide for Subgrades and Subbases

Oct 21, 2008· • Potential subgrade problems encountered during construction • Identifying, evaluating, and selecting reliable geotechnical treatments, such as moisture and density control, soil mixing, over-excavation and select replacement, soil stabilization (fly ash, kiln dust, cement, polymer grid, etc.), and cost-effective drainage

TxDOT Specifications

Apr 16, 2004· 1) Specify type and grade of new base material on the plans. 2) Specify type and application rate of asphalt or emulsion on the plans, when permitted for curing. ... When compaction is by density control, the subgrade will be compacted to at least 95% of the maximum density unless otherwise shown on the plans. 14) When compaction is by density ...

The Construction and Design of Concrete Slabs on Grade

Sub-Grade and Sub-Base The sub-grade is the ground on which the floor is built. The sub-base is an optional layer located on top of the sub-grade and beneath the slab bottom (see Figure 1). The sub-base, while not mandatory, can provide added benefits to the construction and performance of the slab. It is vital to consider sub-grade preparation

Table 1 CCPW Materials Testing and Sampling Frequencies ...

Riding Equipment Walk Behind Equipment 203.02.02 Drainage Excavation (Subgrade) 1/Type 1 / 5000 ft2 / Lift 1 / 1000 ft 2/ Lift 203.02.03 Channel Excavation (Subgrade) 1/Type 1 / 5000 ft2 / Lift 1 / 1000 ft 2 / Lift 203.02.04 Borrow 1/Type 1/Type 1 / 5000 ft2 / Lift 1 / 1000 ft 2 / Lift 203.02.05 Select Borrow 1/Type 1/Type 1 / 5000 ft2 / Lift 1 / 1000 ft 2 / Lift

Subbase or Subgrade: Improving Soil Conditions

May 05, 2019· A subgrade might need special drainage structures to let water if it is composed of impermeable soil, and it should be graded to within plus or minus 1.5 inches of the specified elevation. There is no consistency in regards to the terms of subbase and subgrade, but normally the subgrade is the native soil while the subbase is the layer of soil ...

Type 1 subbase density – Materials Man

Feb 17, 2011· For the first time in my life I am measuring densities of compacted type 1 subbase, we are using type 1 as an import backfill material on the Shetlands gas plant. It's 4.5kg (method 3.5 BS 1377)dry density compaction is 2.38T/M3, it is a metamorphic rock whose relative density will be between 2.8/2.9T/M3 and we are achieving densities of 2.26 ...

Sub-bases | Pavingexpert

Compacted Type 1 limestone . The content previously provided here, looking at the various unbound sub-base aggregates, including DTp1, DTp2, DTp3, DTp4 and their Irish equivalents (803,804, Type C and 807) have been moved to a separate page to enable expanded coverage. Unbound Aggregates for Sub-Bases

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